The Natural Vitamins for Your Body Fitness

Everyone wants to be healthy. But there are times, our lifestyles do not allow us to consume healthy food. Maybe because we have to eat whatever is served by our company or maybe because we are so busy that we do not have time to go further to find the healthy food or make them ourselves. To balance our body and keep it as fit as possible, we need to consume food supplement. One of the best supplements is the Natural Biology – Everest that was invented by a Noble Prize winner, Dr. Linus Pauling. This food supplement has the amino acids, natural vitamins, mineral, antioxidant and other substances that are good for our body.

Natural Biology is available on your nearest store as well as in the Natural Biology Fecebook Store. Unlike most of the other food supplement, Natural Biology – Natural Vitamins. It means, the Natural Biology is 100% made of the substances that come from the nature. Consuming each pill is like consuming apples, broccolis, fishes, etc but you multiply them by ten portions. So you can imagine just how much vitamins contained in each tiny pill. Even when your lifestyle requires you to be always on the move, you can still keep the fitness of your body just by swallowing a pill a day.

Some great benefits of payday loans

Payday advances are usually short-term lending options in which supply you with the funds you will need and soon you acquire, of which moment you must pay out the amount of money again. Payday advances are usually also referred to as cash advance payday loans or perhaps cheque lending options. In the event you require funds just before pay day advance, next this kind of information can assist you to choose when payday loans are usually right for an individual.

Some great benefits of payday loans will be you could obtain urgently necessary funds rapidly, that may allow you to get away from a decent financial predicament. The particular lending options may also be beneficial for many who have got weak credit rating therefore believe it is tough to have other styles regarding lending options or perhaps bank cards. The particular lending options are usually excellent once you learn it is possible to pay off the quantity inside 2-3 weeks once you receives a commission.

If you're battling for the money before you decide to achieve the finish from the 30 days, after that you should think about payday loans being an choice to assist relieve your own short-term monetary demands as well as issue monetary. Nevertheless, factors to consider that you simply just be lent around you are able to pay for to pay for back again the following month although nevertheless getting sufficient to create this to another pay day.

The Existence of Online Payday Loans

If we get bit difficulties in dealing with our financial problems, of course we will find a help for our finance. It might be various on the choices of the solution. However, the common choice is by getting a loan. However, we should find the right type of loans since we will meet lots of types of loans. If we need a short term loans for our personal finance, the payday loans can be one of the ideas to meet our need. It is suitable for getting a short term loans’ for a personal need.

It enables the people to fulfill their needs until their payday comes. Thus, for them, who get the unpredictable expenses in a month can still meet the needs until their next payday by getting this type of loans. The existence of payday loans is totally a great solution since almost all people, including the rich ones can be on this situation.

Now, people can easily get such the loans because of the existence of the online media. We can easily get the online payday loans as a simple and effective way to get out of the worst situation. We can apply the loans by online easily and quickly and get the cash for fast; of course we have to choose a right loan provider.

Opium Poppy Pods Explained

Dried poppy pods are most commonly referred to as Papaver Somniferum which is world renowned for its beautiful flowers and edible seeds. Dried opium poppy pods have frequently been used for medicinal, culinary and sometimes even recreational purposes throughout the ages. One of the main reasons that are associated with the popularity of these opium poppies is the fact that they are also the primary ingredient of many opiates with sedative properties.
If you have ever bought poppy pods you will notice that they are some of the most beautiful flowers you will ever find in a garden. Many types of these poppies are widely available in various colours which include blue, yellow, orange, pink, red, white, purple, and even blue. You can grow your own unique poppies in your outdoor or indoor garden.

Many of these particular species of poppy flowers are frequently utilized in both medicines and food. The most sought after species being that of the opium poppy pod. Dried opium poppy pods contain opium which is a source of many sedative by-products. But, contrary to the popular notion, not every dried poppy pod contains opium.

The opium poppy plant is a colourful flower, which begins its growth process as a pod from which petals sprout. Papaver Somniferum is actually the Latin word for opium poppy and the literal definition is "the sleep-bringing poppy, white form".

This species of Papaver Somniferum contains the majority of opiates, such as morphine and codeine. Take note that it is illegal in majority of countries in the world to deliberately extract the contents of specific types of poppies to get raw morphine.

Dried poppy pods are not always purchased for the sole purpose for committing an illegal act. Florists and hobbyists love using them for ornamental or craft making sessions. After the flower petals fall off the plant the remaining pod can be cut off. It is best that one hangs them up to let them dry. Once the poppy pods are dry, they can be used in flower arrangements or for other decorative purposes.

Since dried opium poppy seeds are edible, and legal to possess and consume, they are oftentimes used in cooking recipes such as breads and desserts throughout the world. You can easily find poppy seeds available at most of your local grocery retailers on the shelves alongside other cooking ingredients. Even though the store brand poppy seeds contain tiny levels of residual opiates one could possibly test positive for drugs if they were consumed within the last 24 hours.

It is of utmost important that one realizes that growing opium poppy pods is considered illegal in most countries even it if the purpose was just to obtain seeds for use in cooking. Since a single poppy pod plant can produce morphine, heroin or opium, getting caught growing these particular species of poppies can result in heavy fines or worse incarceration. Be warned that the risk of growing opium poppy pods is very high and nobody wants to go to prison. Attempting to grow poppy plants is one thing but be aware that even if you are found to be in possession of dried opium poppy pods you could face similar court fines or prison time as if you were to actually grow them yourself.

Many casual poppy plant growers tend to think that growing a small portion in their private garden for flowers or seeds means they are not doing anything illegal. However, it is absolutely incorrect to assume that rules and regulations, as well as the consequences, don't pertain to you since they are the same regardless of the number of plants that you may grow. Therefore, it is highly recommended, that is need dried poppy pods, to either buy poppy seeds from a reputable supplier or purchase dried opium pods from verified sellers.If you are searching for more of the colourful variety of dried Papaver Somniferum pods for decorative purpose, it is much better to buy them from a flower store or online stores authorized to do so. There is always a legal risk of growing poppies. In conclusion, opium poppies for legal commercial pharmaceutical use and culinary purposes are grown by suppliers who acquire special government licenses around the world.
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Native Flowers of Austria

Austria is located in Central Europe and has a temperate and fairly cool climate. Half the country is located in the Alps and so, the country has an alpine weather. The winters can be quite chilly while the summers can be quite hot. The topographical and climatic conditions of country account for various varieties grown in the country. Some of the native flowers of Austria, which add to the beauty of this country, are mentioned below.

Edelweiss is one of the popular mountain flowers of Europe as well as the national flower of Austria. The flower is a member of the sunflower family. The flower has the shape of a star with tiny white hairs, which give it a woolly appearance. The hairs protect the flower from the cold. It has a yellow center with five to six tiny flower heads. The flower is used to depict daring and courage due to its ability to grow in the cold mountain climate. Moreover, it is quite difficult and dangerous to get the flower from the mountainous areas where it is grown due to which, it is said to be the symbol of bravery. Besides this, it has significance in the military operations in the Alps. It was the symbol of the alpine division of the Austrian-Hungarian Army in 1907. The flower is also used in folk medicine and is pictured on the euro coins of the country. Moreover, it is commonly grown in gardens throughout the country.


This flower is native to the Alps and usually grows in the wild. The flower grows in clusters and is commonly blue, yellow, white and purple. One of the species, which can be found on the observe side of the € 0.01 euro coin, is blue and trumpet-like in shape.


The arnica is a perennial flower and is also known as leopard's bane. The flower is yellow-orange in color and blooms during the spring season. This flower is another member of the sunflower family. The flower is commonly used in traditional medicine throughout the country as a remedy for bruises and sprains.


The flower grows in clusters in a shrubby plant. The flower is purple in color and its blooming period stretches from early spring to late summer. Usually the flower can be found grown along moors and bogs.

These are some of the native flowers of Austria. Apart from them, alpine carnation, alpine rose and hyacinth are also native to the country. Some other flowers like roses are also grown in the country.

Native Flowers of Russia

Russia is a huge country in terms of area. Due to its large size, the country has continental weather. It also has a diverse landscape and so, various types of flowers can thrive in the country. Some of the flowers grown in the country are not native to Russia. For example, Chamomile, which is Russia's national flower, is not native to the country. Even sunflower, which is grown throughout the country, is not native to Russia. However, there are various native flowers of Russia that are very popular worldwide. Most of the time, people do not even realize that these flowers come from a different part of the world. Some of the native flowers of Russia are mentioned below.
Maltese Cross

Maltese cross or lychnis chalcedonica, has been grown in the country for three hundred years. It is quite popular outside Russia and was bought to Europe during the time of the Crusades. The flower is bright orange or red in color and grows in clusters. It looks like a cross due to which, it has been given the name 'Maltese cross'. It is usually cultivated as an ornamental flower and is native to central and eastern European Russia.

Baby's Breath

Baby's Breath or gypsophila paniculata, is commonly used as a filler in floral arrangements. It can be found in bouquets, corsages and boutonnieres. The flower represents everlasting love, happiness and purity of the heart. It can be found among wedding flowers and is commonly used in brides' bouquets. Besides this, it is given on the birth of a new baby and to expectant mothers. The flower is also used in crafts as it can be dried easily. The flower is quite small and is commonly white or pink in color.


Blue butterfly larkspur got its name due to its bright blue color. It is also known as Chinese larkspur or Siberian larkspur as it grows in China and Siberia. It is commonly used in summer bouquets.


Some sources claim that this is the national flower of Russia. It is usually found in the northern hemisphere and thrives in areas burned by fire. The flower has four petals, which can be magenta or pink in color.

The above are a few of the native flowers of Russia. In addition to them, many other local and imported varieties are grown in the country. The local flowers are cheaper but sometimes, their quality is not very good. Still, the flowers of Russia are quite attractive and popular worldwide as mentioned above.

All About Lightning

As we enter mid-spring and the weather finally begins to warm up a bit, we expect to see quite a few thunderstorms in Oregon. Inspiring awe in some while scaring the pants off others (but not ME, I'm definitely not scared of lightning. No sir,) it is no surprise that cultures all over the world associate lightning with deity. But what exactly is it?

During an electrical storm, the upper portion of the storm clouds has a positive charge and the lower portion has a negative charge. It is not quite clear how the clouds attain these charges in the first place, but one theory is that different forms of liquid (vapor, water and ice droplets) collide as they rise and fall within a cloud. In the collision, electrons are knocked off of the rising moisture and they gather at the bottom of the cloud, creating the negative charge. It is thought that rising moisture then carries a positive charge to the top of the cloud. The charge separation within the cloud is what creates an electric field, the strength of which is related to the amount of charge buildup in the cloud.

When the electric charge inside the cloud becomes very strong, the air becomes ionized (the positive ions and electrons are spaced further apart than before and the electrons can move more freely.) The strong ionization causes the air to begin to break down, allowing for currents to flow in an attempt to neutralize the charge. These currents are called leaders, and they provide a path through the cloud for the lightning to follow. The initial (or stepped) leader does not move smoothly, but jumps in a jagged fashion. Many leaders form at the same time, but the first one to make contact with the ground is the one that gets the lightning.

The entire process is a bit more complicated, but there you have the basics of how lightning is formed. Lightning is much too powerful for even the best of surge protectors to protect against, and it can reach temperatures of 54,000 °F. (For comparison- the surface of the sun is only about 9,900 °F.) An average bolt of lightning carries about 30,000 amps. A single ampere of current is all it takes to kill a human!

Lightning is a complex phenomenon with many variations and exceptions. Sometimes it shows up in the most unexpected of places.

For example, do you know:

Why We See Lightning During Volcanic Eruptions?

If you saw photos of the eruption of Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull that erupted in 2010, you may have seen lightning within the plumes of smoke and thought that they surely must be photoshopped. Not so!

There is still research being conducted into the definitive cause behind lightning within the smoke plumes of volcanoes, but the general consensus involves, of all things, dust. The idea is that dust/smoke/ash particles carry small charges that become amplified during the chaos of rushing out of a volcano. With every collision of one particle with another, the charges become more and more polarized until lightning is inevitable because the polarization becomes too great for the air to resist the flow of electricity. The lightning neutralizes the charge separation, essentially relieving the tension of polarization.

There is another lesser known type of volcanic lightning, however, which occurs right at the mouth of the volcano and is much less orderly (not the ordinary branching, bolting lightning we're used to seeing), manifesting as chaotic sparks probably as the result of a heavy charge within the volcano itself.

How Many Different Kinds of Lightning There Are?

The answer to this question depends on who you ask, and what you consider a "kind" of lightning. The typical classifications are as follows:

Cloud-to-cloud (intercloud, which is lightning moving between separate clouds, and intracloud, which is lightning moving within the same cloud).

Cloud-to-ground (Less common but more dangerous than cloud to cloud. If anything on the earth is struck by lightning, it was cloud-to-ground.) Cloud-to-ground lightning is more complex than a simple bolt shooting straight from a cloud, however, and includes charges moving up and down from both the cloud and the ground.

Cloud-to-sky (Also known as sprites, cloud-to-sky lightning occurs in the upper atmosphere. They lack the hot temperatures of other types of lightning, and usually have a reddish-orange hue.)

Lightning is also sometimes further specified as:

Ribbon lightning (Successive strokes of lightning are displaced by wind, resulting in a broadened appearance, almost like a double-exposed photo).

Bead lightning (The decay of the luminosity of the bolt of lightning, resulting in a beaded appearance. This happens very quickly and is difficult to capture.)

St. Elmo's Fire This is not actually lightning, but often closely associated with it and seen during electrical storms. St. Elmo's Fire (not to be confused with ball lightning as it often is) is the result of a gap in electrical charge. It's made of plasma (ionized air that emits a glow) and, while lightning is the movement of electricity from a charged point, St. Elmo's Fire is a coronal discharge that sparks up in the place where there is a drastic difference in charge between the air and an object like the mast of a ship or the steeple of a church. St. Elmo's Fire is the same thing that happens in a fluorescent tube- essentially a continuous spark, glowing blue because of the particular combination of air molecules. It may also take on a purple hue.

St. Elmo's Fire is very difficult to find accurate images or videos of. Many videos exist that claim to be St. Elmo's Fire but are actually just static discharge (a frequent occurrence around airplanes in the midst of storms). An easy way to tell the difference is that St. Elmo's Fire does not look like lightning- instead it emits a steady glow.

Ball lightning- The most mysterious type of "lightning", there is some dispute among scientists as to whether ball lightning actually exists. Arc faults along power lines (which appear as large, impossibly bright balls of light) and photographic anomalies are both to blame for the confusion.

How to Stay Safe During a Thunderstorm?

Lightning regularly strikes water, so never go swimming or boating during a storm. If you are in the water when a storm begins, get out of the water as fast as you can.
Lightning strikes will follow anything that conducts electricity, so stay off your landline phone during a storm and turn off/unplug your computers. If lightning strikes your house, even the most powerful of surge protectors will have a hard time protecting your equipment. (Radio waves do not conduct electricity, so as long as your cell phone is not plugged in to an outlet and you are not standing outside during the storm with the metal device held to your face, it is safe to use it. They do not inexplicably "attract" lightning more than any other object with metal in it).
Lightning does in fact strike twice (the Empire State building is struck 20-25 times a year), so don't rely on old adages for your safety information.
If you are caught in a thunderstorm and cannot get inside to safety, crouch low to the ground but do not lay flat. Try to keep as much of your body from touching the ground as possible, because you are in more danger of being injured by currents traveling across the ground after a lightning strike than of being stricken directly by a bolt.
A flash-to-bang (seeing lightning to hearing thunder) ratio of 5 seconds equals one mile of distance from the lightning. Ten seconds equals 2 miles, etc.
Lightning in Mythology

One has only to view an electrical storm themselves to understand why so many people have associated lightning and thunder with deity. A few popular myths and legends about lightning:

Zeus (Jupiter to the Romans) is the planetary god of thunder, and his primary weapon is the thunderbolt (given to him by the Cyclops).
The Thunderbird common to North American indigenous cultures is said to create thunder by the beating of its wings, and lightning is made by glowing snakes that it carries or directly from its eyes.
Thor is the Norse hammer-wielding god of thunder.
There is so much more to learn about lightning in all of its various incarnations. It is a stark reminder of the incredible powerful forces of nature that surround us on all sides. Despite how much we learn about it on a scientific level, we may always be inclined to associate this incredible force with deity.

Land Degradation and Conservation

Land degradation is a worldwide problem. The denuding action of weathering, running water, air, etc. on the upper layer of the earth, is called land erosion.

Land is an important resource provides food, clothing, minerals, other raw materials, and shelter for human beings. Substantial reduction in the productivity of the land is the main outcome of land degradation. Soil, which is a part of land, is the gift of nature, which is available in limited quantity. Soil formation is a slow process. It takes hundreds of years to form. Therefore, it is necessary to put the available land to various uses with the most careful and planned way.

India is a vast country having a 3.28 million square kilometer area, with 22.5% under the forest, 46 % under the net sown area, 8% fallow land, and rest under the other uses. Land under the forest has increased from 14 % in 1950-51 to 22% in 1998-99. The forest-covered area is below the 33% of the total area, which is essential for balanced development. High growth of cities has depleted the forest cover. Mountainous slopes and semi desert areas are the most vulnerable by the running water and wind. In the plain, grinding of limestone for cement industry, release heavy amount of dust in the atmosphere. This later settles down in the surrounding areas, affects' water, and crop cultivation.

Human being has been creating their own world of living by constructing roads, railway, towns, industry, etc. Overgrazing by livestock, deforestation, poor farming practices, inappropriate irrigation, over drafting, Urban sprawl, land pollution, industrial waste, mining and quarrying of sandstone, ore and minerals, etc. are the major causes of land degradation.

We can conserve our land resources by adopting necessary measures:

1. All water resources, especially fresh water, should be used judiciously.
2. By educating and informing people and empowering local communities about its sustainable use for to fulfill needs.
3. Deforested areas should be replaced by tree plantations. Cutting of timber should be restricted and women should be involved in the movements for conservation of forests.
4. Inadequate land for pasturing, resort to animal grazing in area reserved for forest. This practice should be stopped immediately.
5. All the fallow land and wasteland must be under such tree, which can fulfill primary requirement of surrounding regions.
6. In the hilly or mountainous areas, fields must be ploughed along the natural contour of the hills.
7. A terraced farming method shall be adopting in the Rice growing regions along the slop.
8. At the margin of desert, shelter belts shall have planted to check the speed of winds.
9. Stabilization of sand dunes by planting grasses and thorny bushes can help land conservation.
10. Tribal people need to be educated to stop shifting agriculture.
11. Soil salination in irrigated land should be checked to reclaim the land.
12. Proper discharge, disposal of industrial and domestic, effluents and waste.
13. Desert and semi desert areas should be under the cover of grasses, and availability of water should be increased.
14. Land should be shielding from the overuse for chemical pesticide, insecticide, etc.
15. Chemical fertilizer in agriculture should be replaced with organic manure.

Land degradation is the result of unscientific development. Although land use in India is balanced one, but high growth of population may create imbalance. Exploration of land resources for prosperity may be a result of poverty and invitations to the natural calamity. Therefore, we need environment-friendly development for our food, shelter, and above all for the sake of human being.

Discover Nature and Wildlife Within The Natural World

You can find a wide range of God's creatures on mother earth, anything from beetles and fungi, reptiles and wild birds to hedgehogs, moles and domestic dogs and cats. Each of these and many more, play their part in the creation and maintenance of our world. Why not find out about our natural world in a varied range of nature books. Naturally, everybody could do their bit in order that the natural world continues to sustain life, not just the life of mankind but the miles and miles of plant life and forests, the birds and wildlife in the midst of it and not forgetting the polar ice caps, which is also home to a variety of animals, such as polar bears and penguins.

Our journey through the natural world category gets underway with the beetle. A beetle is an insect that has a hard outer covering and with roughly 4,000 different species in Britain alone could make them the commonest animal worldwide. They feed on numerous types of food that include plants, fungi and leaf litter. Beetles come in quite a lot of different colours that gives camouflage from predators. The beetle family comprises of ladybirds, stag beetles, devils coach horses, whirligig beetles, woodworm (or furniture beetles), dung beetles, scarab beetles, weevils, water beetles and longhorn beetles.

Human beings are exposed to nature everywhere we go and we're straightaway surrounded by it whenever we step foot outside, in our gardens, which gets visited by a variety of insects and birds every day, perhaps even nightingales. The nightingale feeds mainly on insects as they are insectivores and they also love to sing at night as well as during the day. Most other birds normally only sing when it is light.

They are secretive birds that live in open broad-leaved woodlands, heaths, coppices and thick undergrowth. Like the beetles above their drab brown colour acts as good camouflage which makes them difficult to see, however they can always be heard because of their distinctive song.

With its small, brown, spiky body the hedgehog is one of the most familiar wild mammals. They can be spotted in parks and gardens under bushes and hedges in the daytime. Although once dusk arrives they love to go off in search of insect rich lawns and flower beds in order to feed. Hedgehogs are known as the gardener's best friend as they love to munch on big, crunchy beetles, earthworms and slugs.

The badger is easily recognisable especially with its black and white striped face and is our biggest land predator. The badger family includes stoats, weasels and otters. The badger is known to be a nocturnal animal which lives in a burrow known as a sett. They will feed on small mammals, ground-nesting birds eggs, earthworms, fruit and roots and bulbs, which they dig up with their strong front paws.

Our journey through the natural world category concludes with the Amazon rainforest which is described as the 'lungs of the earth' as it is able to continuously recycle carbon dioxide into oxygen producing around 20% of the world's supply. The rainforest covers over a billion acres of land and if it were classed as a country it would be about the ninth largest in the natural world.

It is from the rainforest that at least 80% of the developed world's diet originated, giving us fruit, vegetables, spices, sugar cane, coffee and nuts such as Brazil and cashews. The rainforests not only provide some of the foods we eat but many of the plants there have been proven to be of great medicinal value and many of which have been found to be active against cancer cells.

The natural world is truly an amazing and inspiring place in which we can discover the many plants, animals and fungi that live all around us and the rocks, fossils and minerals inside the planet we walk on.

Tress And Their Diseases

With the start of the New Year we are starting a new series of blogs on tree knowledge. This will mainly feature on causes of ill health in trees and will help you identify when further action is required.

Giant polypore, botanical name Meripilus giganteus, is a large bracket fungus, which usually affects beech trees. Its impressive fruiting bodies appear around the base of the tree as this fungus attacks the roots. It is parasitic, meaning it attacks live trees, and can cause trees to collapse in the worst instance.

Giant polypore causes what is known as white-rot. This means it degrades and feeds on both lignin (the substance which makes plants woody) and cellulose (cell walls). Its fruiting bodies (fungal brackets) only survive for a year, and may not form every year. The fruiting body is just one part of the fungus. If the fruiting body is not visible, this does not mean the infection is not present, just as removing the bracket will not stop infection.

Giant polypore usually affects the underside of tree roots. This makes the extent of infection very difficult to ascertain. The severity of infection does not always have a visual affect on the crown of the tree either. For these reasons, it is often unwise to keep an affected tree if it is in falling distance of public or property.

I will now focus on Kretzschmaria deusta, (previously known as Ustilina deusta). This is a particularly dangerous type of decay fungus. It is relatively common, reproducing with spores carried in the wind and can infect most species of tree.

Kretzschmaria deusta is dangerous for two main reasons. Firstly it attacks live trees. It decays the base of the tree, attacking the heartwood. This can often make the extent of decay within the tree difficult or impossible to identify. It can potentially cause stem failure without warning, particularly if the fruiting body has not been identified.

The second reason Kretzschmaria deusta is particular dangerous is because the fruiting body is difficult to spot. It is not an obvious fungal bracket. It instead grows first a white layer at the base of the tree when juvenile, then transforming into a black layer when mature. It can often look like a thin tar covering at the base of the tree. As the fruiting body only grows at the base of the tree, it can often be hidden by long grass, weeds or other plants within a dense understorey. This is one reason you may see experienced tree consultants kicking undergrowth away from the base of trees when carrying out an inspection.

As Kretzschmaria deusta can cause tree failure without warning, infected trees are often condemned as soon as the fungus has been identified, particularly if the tree is in a high risk location such as at a roadside or adjacent to a building. There is no cure for the infection and it can continue living on dead tree stumps after the rest of the tree has been removed. This makes controlling the disease difficult and we must instead be vigilant to spot infection before serious harm is caused.

Lake and Pond Scum

Lake and pond scum is that nasty film of debris and biological decomposition that usually indicates a stagnant body of water with more significant problems. It is not pleasant to look at, swim in or even boat across. And the water column is typically not healthy for the fish that live within those waters. These fish are trapped in those conditions and have to endure low oxygen levels and high algae growth leaving them stressed. If these conditions continue weak fish will die off. If they worsen, even healthy fish will succumb to the conditions.

One very effective technique to prevent this stagnation from happening is to install a laminar flow aeration system. Also known as a bubbler, the only indication of the system is a small area of bubbles rising to the surface in one or more places depending on the size of your lake or pond. Installing a system such as this will mix the water column from the surface to the bottom. The movement breaks up the pond scum allowing toxins trapped at the bottom of the pond to release into the air. At the same time, oxygen is absorbed into the water which then travels to all levels of the water. Bacteria are then able to utilize the oxygen rich conditions to more effectively digest the biological load preventing algae blooms by taking away their food source.

You lake or pond will not only appear cleaner, the water quality will be improved and be a more healthy environment for you and the fish. A more balance ecosystem is the result with fewer swings in water quality. Minor fluctuations will still occur due to adverse weather conditions, but overall your pond will suffer fewer of these events and will self correct more quickly than if no aeration were present.

Aeration is a time tested technique used to digest biologicals in the waste water industry. It has been used in numerous lakes and pond around the world with great results. It uses nature and the good bacteria present in every body of water to remove the excess nutrients. Instead of aquatic pesticides and herbicides which can leave harmful residues that have long lasting unintended effects, aeration simply adds oxygen back to a ecosystem that desperately need it to operate properly. If you choose to discontinue the aeration, the ecosystem returns back to its previous state without and detrimental effects.

Soil Formation and Erosion

Soil formation

Soil is the uppermost, fertile layer of the earth. It is one of the natural resources present on the earth. It is formed by the physical, substance, genetic and organic changes which go on taking place constantly in the layers of the earth, by the external forces like water, wind, glacier, ocean waves, etc. the weathered rock can be of different size. The numbers factors contribute a lot in the formation of the soil.

Climate has a significant role in influencing the decomposition of the different rocks to a great extent. The quality and amount of moisture and dryness in the soil depends upon the climate. The soil forming processes take place differently in varying climatic conditions. Its' took place more rapidly in the summer and rainy season. The classification and patterns of soils also depend on the climate.

The nature of weathered particles is responsible for the formation of soil. The particles may be obtained from the weathering of rocks or depositing of material by river, winds, glaciers, etc. The physical and chemical compositions of soil particles determine the relative proportions of different minerals in the layers.

The topography of a region affects the formation of soil. Steep slopes in the mountainous areas have the thin soil layers. It's due to the erosion and the state of moisture in the different layers. In areas of bad drainage and rigid topography, soil is not well developed.

Time is an important factor of soils' formation. A rich and fertile soil is formed only when the weathered particles of rocks remain uninterrupted on the same place for a long time.

It is only the longevity of time that the action of physical, chemical and organic processes takes place. It leads to the formation of deep and well- developed layers of soil. If time is not sufficient, the soils will remain undeveloped and skinny.

Soil profile

Each type of soil has a well-developed vertical section called the soil profile. There are four distinct layers in the soil profile.

The top layer is the biological layer and consists of fine particles and natural matter from decayed plants and animals. It is about 1-2 inches thick. Living things carry on with their life activities in this layer. Therefore, it is called humus.

The second layer is the horizon A. This layer has bacteria, which helps in the recycling of different material, and has plant's roots, fungus, etc.

The next layer is called horizon B, which contains materials obtained from the top layer by the seepage of water from the surface. It has a few symptoms of life. Below the sub- soil, there are the layer rocks and pebbles, of partly weathered rocks. In some areas, it contains water, depending on the water table.

Causes of Soil Erosion

Deforestation is the major cause of soil erosion. In the natural conditions, the roots of the trees hold the soil particles together and save soil for erosion. However, when trees are cut down uncontrollably, running water cut the soil and become a cause of erosion. Nothing can check the speed of running water during the rainy season. It erodes soil ruthlessly.

Drizzle and light showers do not cause much damage to the soil, but heavy and torrential rains carry away the fine soil particles with them due to their great speed and erosive capacity.

Overgrazing, especially by cows, goats, camels and sheep in the desert and semi-desert areas are the causes of Soil erosion. Plants and vegetation, which conserve soil, are uprooted by these animals. It generally happens on the mountainous, arid and semi-arid regions. Water during the rainy season carries away the loose soil. Same actions are done by wind the desert areas, resulting in the soil erosion.

In the areas of steep slope like mountain and hilly areas, water is more affected, then any other agent of erosion.

Clayey soil an absorb water easily. Therefore, the soil erosion is much less in the areas of clayey and sandy soil. Land is a prime natural resource, but due to its excessive use; it has been degraded to a large extent throughout the world.

Monarch Caterpillars

The tiger striped Monarch caterpillars are among the most beautiful of the caterpillars. Monarch caterpillars are usually born on and eat milkweed plants. This is helpful to the caterpillar and butterfly because the toxins from these plants are passed into the insect, which makes them distasteful to predators like birds. Even if an ignorant bird tries to eat a Monarch caterpillar, its bad taste will discourage the bird from eating any others.

The caterpillar is but the second stage in the life cycle of the Monarch butterfly. It starts out as an egg laid on the milkweed plant. The female butterfly will glue the eggs to the leaf of the plant with her own bodily secretions to make sure they're secure, then she'll leave and give no more care to the eggs or the larvae.

When it's time for the caterpillar to emerge, it will chew a circular lid in the eggshell, then pull its body free of the egg. Then, it will eat the eggshell, which gives it some nutrients before it starts to eat the milkweed.

Like all caterpillars, the Monarch caterpillar's task is simply to eat and eat till it reaches the size when it will be ready to pupate. This is about two inches long and takes about two weeks. After the caterpillar has reached this size and survived predators and other hazards, it will find a location (usually away from the milkweed) and spin a pad there. It'll attach its rear to the pad with hooks and hang in the shape of a "J" for about twenty four hours.

Then, the caterpillar's skin splits down the back and the pupa emerges. It wriggles free from the skin which is finally cast off. The pupa then hardens, and waits.

Even the pupae of Monarch caterpillars are attractive. They're mostly jade green and have beautiful dots of what look like gold along the tops and on the side.

During the pupal stage, the body of what was the caterpillar is broken down into something like a soup and slowly formed into the adult butterfly. This drastic process is known as complete metamorphosis.

Finally, the pupa case splits and the Monarch butterfly struggles out. After it emerges the butterfly rests for a while. Its wings are crumpled and damp and can't work right away. The butterfly spends a couple of hours pumping fluid into the wing veins so the wings can expand and harden properly. The Monarch butterfly then flies away to begin the process all over again. The time between egg and adult is about a month.

How to Find Sea Glass or Beach Glass

Sea glass, also known as beach glass, is becoming rarer to find for two main reasons. The first is that over the last decade or so, fewer glass items such as bottles are finding their way into the sea. Although this is good from an environmental point of view, it is heart breaking for collectors and enthusiasts. The second reason for the decline in beach glass is that more people have become aware of its existence and rare status resulting in more people collecting it to make items such as sea glass jewellery.

However, there is still plenty of it to be found if you know where and how to look. Although most beaches will have at least some pieces of beach glass, some will have a great deal more. The location of the best beaches for finding the treasured glass depends on a number of factors including the conditions of the sea in that area, accessibility and popularity with other collectors. The best thing to do is under take a search on Google for and you will find that collectors or jewellery makers will often list their favourite places for finding it.

Once you have found a beach local to you, it's time to work out when best to go. The best time for finding sea glass is at low tide as the greatest expanse of beach is available for searching on. Again you will be able to do a Google search and find out low tide times in your area. The best time of year for sea glass collecting is in the Spring after high spring tides and storms which will have washed it ashore.

Once on the beach, there are two main methods for finding beach glass. The first is to look along the water's edge. Sea glass is frosted in appearance when dry which can make it difficult to spot amongst the pebbles depending on its colour. However when it is wet, it is easier to spot. You are looking for pieces of smooth shaped glass, with the most common colours being green, brown and clear.

The second method of finding beach glass is to look along the tide line. This is where the majority of sea debris is washed in from seaweed to rubbish and glass. If the tide line is dry, sea glass will have a frosted appearance although most colours should still be obvious to spot. The most treasured pieces are old so will be very smooth in shape - often an oval or triangular shape. However watch out for fresh glass which will have been washed in too. This will be clearer in appearance and is likely to have sharp edges so be careful if handling it.

Often beginners to sea glass collecting will simply pick up all the pieces they find. However more seasoned collectors and people that use it to make sea glass jewellery and other items will be more selective about the size, colour and shape of the pieces they pick up, leaving the rest on the shores for others to enjoy.

Humane Rat Traps

Any rodent infestation is a bad experience but rats are particularly bad. While there many options such as snap traps, glue traps, poison, and electronic traps, many animal lovers opt for a humane rat trap such as the live ones made of wire mesh with steel reinforcements which are typically galvanized for maximum resistance to rust. The wooden type of humane rat traps are not ideal because a large rat can chew through the wood quite quickly. Plastic traps are considered by some to be a little too lightweight. Aside from being humane, these traps prevent escapes and stolen bait. The rat is trapped and not killed. The question is what to do with the rat once it is caught.

Peanut butter is effective as bait in such a trap because it lasts for days and is not as easily disturbed as something like pumpkin seeds are. You can poison the humane trap bait if you are not in the mood to deal with a trapped live rat. The problem with these types of traps is that rats are difficult to deal with even in a cage with a secure door.

In addition, it is often difficult to transport a rat to a place where it can be released. It is one thing to release a mouse in your garden. Rats are something else and you might have to take the rat to an animal disposal site. Another important fact about rats is that they are distrustful and smart. They are suspicious of anything new and the suspicion can overcome curiosity.

Poison is not considered the best choice for two reasons. One is that your pets can eat the poisoned food -- and this could happen even in a live cage trap. The other reason is that a rat on the loose can eat poison and then crawl into the framework of the house and die. Its corpse will decompose and smell very bad.

A humane trap is clean and efficient. You have to decide which you prefer to cope with -- a dead rat or an angry live one before you look through the products available. You also need to know if the trap is one that offers an easy set up. A glue trap may not be strong enough to hold the rat and a snap trap might not kill the rat, just maim it. There are products that will do the rat catching for you. You just have to chose the method that best suits you.

Tips for Identifying Bird Calls

There are approximately 10,000 different species of birds in the world today, and around 2000 of those can be found in North America alone. For bird watching enthusiasts, the challenge is to find and identify as many of these species as possible. In order to do this, birders use a number of clues including, the location and habitat, and the physical attributes of the bird itself such as shape, size and coloring. One of the easiest and most useful identification tools is the song or call, a unique attribute of each species.

Birds use their songs to communicate, and their calls can be heard over long distances, in dense vegetation or at night when the bird itself can't be seen. Birds can create a greater variety of sounds than humans, and have the ability to take shallow short breaths synchronized with their songs giving the impression that their calls are long and uninterrupted.

In order to identify a bird by its sound, a birdwatcher must listen to various components in the call. For example, does the song consist of a single note, two notes or three or more notes? The call of the Mourning Dove is a trill but always on exactly the same note, while a House Finch chirps up and down on two distinct notes.

Another characteristic is the musical quality of the call. Some birds such as the Skylark have a call that is amazing in its beauty and complexity, while the harsh nasal sound of the Laughing Gull won't inspire any cantatas.

Bird calls may be high, moderate or low pitched, and their songs may be short or long in duration. Even the speed of sound repetition can help distinguish one bird from another. The Song Sparrow issues short, quick, moderate pitched chirps with a break between each one, while the American Goldfinch's call is high-pitched, in groups of three, descending, short sounds.

The term birding by ear, means learning to identify birds by their individual calls. Gaining this skill requires time and patience. Start by listening to the birds in your own yard and trying to distinguish one sound from another. You can find the sounds you are hearing by listening to audio clips of individual bird songs online.

Choose the early morning to go bird watching. The cool air and lack of noise allows their calls to be carried more easily. Take detailed notes of what you hear and then go back to the internet and try to match the song to the bird. By listening for a birds call, you can more easily locate the bird itself through your binoculars, and learn to match the physical characteristics with the sound.

Learning to identify birds by their calls will add a rich dimension to your birding experiences, and allow an increased appreciation of the avian creatures that share our world.

The Culinary Delights Of: The Different Types Of Orchids?

Lately I've been reading a lot of orchid books and posts about edible orchids. Since the birth of civilization, the search for edible things has brought us the weirdest culinary delights, such as snails and insects. That is why it's no surprise that even an unlikely source -- orchids -- found its way onto the tables and into the mouths of people around the world.

Discover what and where these incredible flowers have been used as delicious and healthy concoctions. The most common question I found about eating orchids is what can be eaten and how. The answer is basically very easy. Everything! If you are not that picky, actually every part of the orchid that can be chewed and swallowed can be eaten. But the most favorite part of the plant that people eat is the flower.

Aside from vanilla being the most recognized orchid that can be eaten, orchid flowers have been a part of the diet of people long before any of them found their way to cakes and cocktail drinks. Clear examples to this culinary adventure are the people of Hawaii who have been said to have eaten orchids since the 1960's.

They eat them as salads and as candies. Singaporeans also use orchid flowers as a part of a stir-fried dish mixed with vegetables and meat. In Turkey and the Middle East, they use orchid bulbs as flavoring in ice cream. People of South Africa use orchid tubers to flavor meat sauces.

As a matter of fact because of this demand, the existence of the African orchids is now being threatened. The taste is described to be ranging from bitter to sweet depending on the orchid types. Basically since no orchid is poisonous, all orchids are quite edible. They are also rich in fiber, which is good for digestion, and Vitamin C to boost the immune system. Of course, this might not be for everyone's taste buds.

Some may think it's a waste to eat these delicate flowers. But do not worry! There are certain farms that grow these plants especially for cooking. To those willing to try orchids as food, it is surely a new way of seeing (or in this case, tasting) these wonderful beauties of nature. Enjoy the delights of what natural things bring, such as these flowers. Orchids are an alternative to fruits and vegetables. Enjoy them in salads and much more.

Climate Change Adaptation and Agriculture


Climate Change (CC) is the among the most important global environment concerns. CC is having significant impacts on the most vulnerable communities. Considering characteristics, agriculture can be considered as one of the most affected sector and thus most vulnerable to climate change. Susceptibility and sensitivity of agriculture to the variance of the climatic parameters is responsible for the fact. Agriculture having the significant contributor in national GDP, translates the susceptibility of national economy and growth to climate change. In context of India the GDPs 60% share is agriculture and approximately 60% population's livelihood is depends on farming co emphasizing the need of resilient systems and strategies for agriculture sector and farming community. In which semi-arid regions are considered particularly most vulnerable to climate change. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation Supported Development Alternatives, a Civil Society Organization, active in Bundelkhand Region of Central India for taking up actions and influence policy to address the climate vulnerability of the region and its impact on livelihhods.


Semi arid regions being particularly less resilient to the non favourable climatic conditions, lead to more negative impacts. Bundelkhand has faced severe drought years in recent past (five drought years in last seven years). Last year was not the hydrological drought but delayed monsoon resulted into the failed Kharif season in most part of the Bundelkhand region. Increasing frequency of the drought in the region is causing the farmers to take extreme steps in frustration. There have been incidences of farmers letting their animals in fields as the crops would not yield anything, in cases of delayed monsoon.

Even though farmers are facing these challenges, haven't yet realized that these droughts are not incidental but reflecting the trend of reducing rainfall and erratic character and these are going to be more common incidents in future. Thus there is dire need not only of identifying strategies to fight climate change but also to make the vulnerable sections aware about the climate change and make them ready to adopt the strategies for adapting to climate change.

Mitigation and Adaptation:

There are several factors and sectors which are responsible for Green House Gas emissions and thus climate change. Agriculture sector remained most unmanaged till yet due to i) non point source emission of GHGs, ii) need and priority of higher productions to feed the ever growing population. As mentioned above, agriculture sector is also most susceptible to climate change contributing into the vicious cycle. Inefficient agricultural practices causes the GHG more emissions, which accelerating the CC, resulting into the lower production. To compensate this, farmers tend to put more resources whenever and wherever are available in terms of fertilizer, water etc. which are the main factor for inefficiencies in the farm sector.

Effects of Climate Change and Solutions:

In Bundelkhand region, calculations of the climate reflect that after 25 years, rainfall is expected to reduce by 20% and the productivity of the existing crops may reduce by 15%. Decreasing landholding per farmer is going to have enhanced negative impact of these projections.

Thus the expected facts after 20-25 years would be:

• Reduced rainfall, thus
o Less availability of surface water
o Deepened ground water level
o Low returns of rain fed agriculture

• Smaller landholdings
• High input costs in agriculture
• Lower profitability per unit of land
• Higher risks of crop failures

Above estimations on reduced productions are based on the existing crops and practices. Our adaptation strategies need to be focus on the methods which can nullify or reduce the effects of the unreliable climatic conditions. Such as:

• Adopting low water requiring/ drought resisting crops/crop verities
• By reducing the water losses in agriculture and by irrigating the crops/plants not the land
• Using improved practices to save the applied water like mulching etc
• Reducing the input costs by appropriate application of inputs
• Adopting and promoting the alternative models for duel/multiple use of land like different forms of agroforestry or multi cropping
• By having fall back options like alternate income sources/crop insurance etc.

Where is will there is a Way

Approach which has been adopted to take up and fight with climate change is two sided, i) Identifying the technical options and interventions required, ii) making community aware and helping them to take lead to fight climate change.

Identification of interventions

Drought resistant varieties are available at different stakeholders. However the adoption is not much as farmers are not aware about these varieties and characteristics of these crops/crop varieties. Such varieties have been promoted as they are the important option which can provide reliable production level even in extreme conditions.

There are various methods and ways available for reducing the water losses in irrigation. Sprinkler and drip methods can reduce the water application significantly. Similarly, mulching can reduce the water loss from the soil. For flood irrigation also contour cultivation, and making the check basins or borders depending on the land slope and soil type, can increase the water use efficiencies significantly. Information on these options is being made available to the farmers through different stakeholders including the research organizations.

It has also been observed that the quantity of seed we use per acre of land is quite higher than required for optimum production. This, not only increase the input costs but also reduce the productivity by creating unnecessary competition within the crop itself. Appropriate use of manure and fertilizers, minimal tillage is the practices which reduces the input costs and enhance the profitability of the particular crops.

Agro-horticulture and other forms of Agro-forestry can be one way of reducing the dependability of the output of our efforts on the erratic monsoon, thus, stabilizing the incomes of the household and also its distribution across the year. For the purpose of reducing the risks of crop failure, government is also promoting the efficient irrigation systems like drip and sprinkler for agro-horticulture use.

Government has also various other schemes to protect or at least protect partially ourselves from the risks of the crop failure from several reasons. National Agriculture Research Scheme (NAIS) is one of them. We can get our crop insured under this scheme and in case of crop damage due to any o the enlisted reasons, we can get the benefits of the schemes.

It is also worth knowing at this point of time that quite of the options available are more accessible for the groups. Let's join hand together to access the information and take the challenges posed by climate change.

Creating Institutional Systems for Adaptation

Adaptation is the community and social initiative, which needs community actions. For sustainable farming society initiative, three tier institutional systems has been formed, at village level farmers groups consists of active farmers. The objectives of the farmers clubs is to keep interactions and ensure access of farmers to knowledge and resources bases in terms of the meetings with scientists and extension workers, ensuring appropriate seed varieties and technologies etc. At second tier representatives of the farmers groups have formed the cluster of the farmers group. These clusters are responsible for managing and creating cluster (cluster of geographically nearby villages). Top level tier is the federation level institution which takes the responsibility to resource building for all three levels of the institutions and establishing backward and forward linkages with markets.

In fact these institutions are playing their role effectively and have shown the capacity. Several activities have been taken up by them. These three tier system is part of the Farmers adaptation cluster. During the first year of operations, the Farmers Adaptation Cluster, has established linkages with different institutions like Water Technology Centre, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, Krishi Vikas Kendra (KVK), National Research Centre on Agro Forestry (NRCAF), etc. and had arranged exposure visits for its member farmers, introduced high yielding varieties and appropriate practices affecting the yield enhancement by 35 to 40%. It has also recorded the reduction in required inputs due to information and appropriate technology propagation.

What Happens Inside the Bee Hive?

Bees are social insects; they live in groups called colonies, inside their habitats called bee hives. A colony is a very organized system with each bee given a duty and a role to perform. Bees are also very responsible and hardworking insects because they do their jobs very well and stick to their duties for the survival of the rest of the colony.

There are three types of bee individuals in the colony. Each has different functions and tasks. A bee population has about 70,000 in late summer. It is composed of a Queen bee, thousands of Workers, and hundreds of Drones.

The Queen Bee

The Queen bee is the largest in the colony and is the only female bee that is fertile. She is the head and life in the colony revolves around her. She starts her life as a two-day old female worker larva. The younger Workers feed her with a mixture called Royal jelly and she comes out of her cell after eleven days of development.

She mates with several Drones (male bees) in three days. This is the only allotted time for her to mate during which enough sperm will be stored and fertilized in her body. These eggs will be laid after ten days.
The Queen lays fertilized and unfertilized eggs. Fertilized eggs are the female ones or the Workers and the unfertilized eggs are the Drones or the male bees.

The Queen secretes a pheromone which sends messages and keeps the other bees sterile.

Worker Bees

The female Workers are the ones who build the comb in which honey is produced and stored and where eggs are being laid. There are about 55,000 of them in the hive.

Worker bees are the laborers of the colonies and do jobs not related to reproduction. They tend to the queen, the larvae and even the younger Drones. They are the ones who gather nectar and pollen, supply food and water, and produce beeswax. They travel thousands of miles away to gather nectar.

One Worker only produces half a teaspoon of honey. An entire colony produces about 200 pounds of honey every year.

As they grow older and more mature, they also act as guardians of their territories. They are the one who attack and sting. However, a bee only stings once then dies. In other words, Worker bees do all the work, cleaning, nursing, beeswax production, temperature control, security jobs, and foraging.

Drone Bees

Drones are male honey bees. Their only duty is to impregnate the queen and cooperate in the mating season. They don't collect nectar nor pollenate and forage. They also are unable to sting because they lack stingers and don't have a role in colony defence. Because of their limited functions and use, they are usually driven out of the colony during winter and discouraged to get in again and so they die of starvation.
Bees are indeed a very hardworking bunch. They perform their duties and responsibilities for the survival of their own kind and colony. Their collaboration and system structure is on great example for a good organization to work.

Love of Life - Trees

Beyond the usually accepted height of shrubs - small (1m) or medium to large (3-4m) there are those great and wonderful upright and enduring growths we know as trees. These provide the greatest percentage of the populations of plants in the forests of our planet and are particularly abundant in the tropical and temperate regions on our planet.

We all love trees. Many of us do not know the names of those we see on film or TV or in the tourist brochures, the street trees in our region, or even those in our gardens although we appreciate their shade and their beauty.

Favourite trees are unique choices of each individual, but some trees are so popular that they are assessed as being the public choice, such as the highly ornamental jacarandas and poincianas. Through intensive cultivation we are often able to enjoy and procure specimens of our favourite trees from plant nurseries to introduce into our own gardens. However, a more intimate first contact with particular trees probably occurred when an affectionate bond was formed with the trees local to your childhood home and your parent's garden where you first explored the outdoors. These trees are likely to remain life-long favourites.

However, we all love trees for different reasons, not only for sentiment or nostalgia associated with our early life but for the appeal they have for us that allows a sense of a relationship to exist as a friend. It is easy to apply this to the great and ancient oaks and forest giants of the redwoods when the trees assume a 'grand-daddy' status and represent a power far greater than our own. But a special bond can exist between humans and plants of all kinds as we are all sentient beings and like to interact with other life forms as we do also with animals. It may be that our link with plants is more vague, or subtle and certainly less actively expressed than with animal life, but it is very real, just the same.

Sometimes our affection for trees is tinged with gratitude for the fruits and potential harvest we have, and will again enjoy; it may be that we long for its provision of shade for us to cool in the burning sun; that we will benefit by sitting in contact with its enduring trunk and by feeling its strong earth anchorage and 'feel better' for the contact; or that we will love it for the fact we planted it as a small sapling; sometimes with an associated purpose such as the Princess trees - planted by custom at the birth of a female child so that it will provide a wedding box when she comes of age; or that we enjoy the seasonal cyclic denuding and fresh foliation of the deciduous trees. Whether we love the carefully tended garden trees or the wild, untamed and irregular patterns and forms of the wilderness trees - they are all beautiful!

Some trees speak to us of gentleness and poetry as the weeping willow, others of their power and fortitude in withstanding the conflicts of the elements. Some are graceful in their growing habit and others are stark and hostile, even hurtful in their character. But even these will be found to attract people who appreciate them, to tend them and hold affection for them as they do the tall specimens of the cactus family.

The truth is that we on this planet utterly depend upon trees that dominate in the recycling and reconstituting of the earth and its surface nutrients. We depend upon the oxygen that is released to create the comfortable atmosphere that we breathe. They give us food, in their leaves, fruit and produce. They offer us organic material from their roots, bark and seeds not only for food but for medicine. We have always depended upon trees for timber for our shelters, homes, furniture, fuel - our bridges, pylons, cordage and netting, thatching and domestic utensils as well as for personal ornamental objects.

And the subtle message they present, should we care to listen, is expressed by their bravery in facing and enduring the elements, sometimes for centuries, thereby offering us the example of endurance and persistence in the face of natural conflicting forces. We learn much from the energies and souls of trees.

We have loved trees and have in ancient times linked them to the gods and given them special names and powers. We love trees still and have promoted their cultivation and developed multitudes of species, cultivars and varieties in the an endless fascination and passion common to plant lovers, foresters, botanists and the simple lovers of trees who contribute to their growth. But we must love trees even more - not only to act out the promises of past commitments to increase the forest areas of the world but to realise the significance of this prime task that is required if we are to survive as a people.

It is not possible to compare the degree or extent of the affection we have towards natural life in general. Some of us love timber trees and scorn the violet. We each can develop a passionate interest in one type of plant or tree or another and generate a special gleam in the eye when enjoying work with a particular specialised plant project.

In the case of trees in general, there is no better tribute to the passion of the "Man of the Trees" as he was known by many - Richard St Barbe Baker, the 20th century forester who undertook seemingly impossible projects and spent his life persuading us to plant trees and cease cutting down our forests. He was responsible for projects in Britain such as the increased protection of coastlines; in creating a viable scheme for tree planting of the Sahara and desert regions; his industry and influence was vitally influential in saving the Redwood Forests of North America and is still remembered for his work in Israel and in Africa. The organization he started 'Men of the Trees', attracted Royal patronage and as an organization still exists with the single commitment - to plant trees.